Do you know why you celebrate Feb 14th?
The history of Valentine’s Day, and the story of its patron saint, is shrouded in mystery. We do know that February has long been celebrated as a month of romance, and that St. Valentine’s Day, as we know it today, contains vestiges of both Christian and ancient Roman tradition.
But who was Saint Valentine, and how did he become associated with this ancient Pagan rite? The Catholic Church recognizes at least three different saints named Valentine or Valentinus, all of whom were martyred. One legend contends that Valentine was a priest who served during the third century in Rome. When Emperor Claudius II decided that single men made better soldiers than those with wives and families, he outlawed marriage for young men.
Valentine, realizing the injustice of the decree, defied Claudius and continued to perform marriages for young lovers in secret. When Valentine’s actions were discovered, Claudius ordered that he be put to death.
Other stories suggest that Valentine may have been killed for attempting to help Christians escape harsh Roman prisons, where they were often beaten and tortured. According to one legend, an imprisoned Valentine actually sent the first “valentine” greeting himself after he fell in love with a young girl–possibly his jailor’s daughter–who visited him during his confinement. Before his death, it is alleged that he wrote her a letter signed (which is odd, as it was said that she was blind) “From your Valentine,” an expression that is still in use today. Although the truth behind the Valentine legends is quite murky, the stories all emphasize his appeal as a sympathetic, heroic and–most importantly–romantic figure. By the Middle Ages, perhaps thanks to this reputation, Valentine would become one of the most popular saints in England and France.
Origins of Valentine’s Day: A Pagan Festival in February
While some believe that Valentine’s Day is celebrated in the middle of February to commemorate the anniversary of Valentine’s death or burial–which probably occurred around A.D. 270–others claim that the Christian church may have decided to place St. Valentine’s feast day in the middle of February in an effort to “Christianize” the pagan celebration of Lupercalia. Celebrated at the ides of February, or February 15. Lupercalia was a fertility festival dedicated to Faunus, (better known as Pan) the Roman god of agriculture, as well as to the Roman founders Romulus and Remus.
To begin the festival, members of the Luperci, an order of Roman priests, would gather at a sacred cave where the infants Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome, were believed to have been cared for by a she-wolf or lupa. The priests would sacrifice a goat, for fertility, and a dog, for purification. They would then strip the goat’s hide into strips, dip them into the sacrificial blood and take to the streets, gently slapping both women and crop fields with the goat hide.
“February derives from Februa which translates to “Means of Purification.” February was sacred to Juno Februata: the Goddess of Febris (Fever of Love) of women and marriage. On February 14th small pieces of paper which had the names of teen-aged girls written upon them were placed into an urn.
Teen-aged boys would then choose one “billet” each at random, and the girl whose name was drawn would then “couple” with that boy and join in erotic games during the feasts and parties celebrated throughout Rome. After the festival they would remain sexual partners for the rest of the year. This custom was observed by the Roman Empire for centuries.”
Far from being fearful, Roman women welcomed the touch of the hides because it was believed to make them more fertile in the coming year. Later in the day, according to legend, all the young women in the city would place their names in a big urn. The city’s bachelors would each choose a name and become paired for the year with his chosen woman. These matches it is said often ended in marriage.
From Pagan Sex Rites to Christian Martyr Saint. So what does Valentines day mean to us in the 21st century other than Cupids and Candy, Lingerie and Dandy?