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T-cell leukemia is classified, as a type of  lymphoid leukemia that interact with T cells. Four main types exist in this nomenclature, along with sub-types. Acute myeloid leukemia, Acute lymphocytic leukemia, Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and Chronic myeloid leukemia. T-cell lymphoma and T-cell leukemia are difficult to distinguish from each other and often classified or grouped together.

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Some of the sub-types of T-cells are: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) which also has four sub-types and fast growing, Lymphoma being the most common blood cancer is sub-classified as: Adult T-cell lymphoma (lymph system cancer), acute, chronic and smoldering, caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus or (HTLV1) a retrovirus.

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Large granular lymphocytic leukemia, the cause which is unknown, (LGLL) is much more common in woman. T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), which is most common in older men, however woman may also develop this carcinogenic condition. Sezary syndrome, a type of mycosis fungoides, which takes years to develop and, is slow growing that occurs in the skin. This T-cell lymphoma is only located on the skin and large amounts of lymphoma cells is present in the blood.

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Patients who contract T-cell leukemia can encounter some of the following symptoms: Swollen lymph nodes, fatigue and itching of the skin, but sometimes none of these symptoms are seen in patients. While leukemia may be caused by an inherited genetic mutation, it can also be caused by environmental effects such as radiation and chemical exposure as well as smoking, which are some of the risk factors, but in most cases patients who contract leukemia the cause is unknown.

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